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Emerald is a gemstone and a variety of the mineral beryl (Be3Al2(SiO3)6) coloured green by trace amounts of chromium and sometimes vanadium. Beryl has a hardness of 7.5–8 on the Mohs scale.Most emeralds are highly included, so their toughness (resistance to breakage) is classified as generally poor. Emerald is a cyclosilicate.

Emerald has been a supply of fascination and reverence in many cultures for over six thousand years, offered in the markets of Babylon as early as four,000 B.C. It become a stone worshipped via the Incas, believed by means of the Chaldeans to comprise a goddess, and become rather honoured in all primary religions for its non secular energy and splendor. Emerald changed into taken into consideration a image of eternal existence in ancient Egypt, a gift of Thoth, the god of knowledge, and was a favourite jewel of Queen Cleopatra. The Emerald mines in Upper Egypt, rediscovered one hundred years in the past, are some of the oldest within the international and were known as Cleopatra?S mines for her love of the stone. Emeralds had been additionally talismans of Aristotle, Alexander the Great, Charlemagne, and the moguls of India. They?Ve decorated the crowns and royal jewels of many nations for centuries, and fantastic collections and lovely gems stay precious and displayed via the wealthy and well-known today

The natural exuberance of Emerald?S green color has stimulated the Pantone Company, the industry preferred for print, style, splendor and d?Cor to claim ?Emerald? The 2013 Colour of the Year, describing it as ?Lively. Radiant. Lush, a coloration of beauty and beauty that complements our feel of nicely-being, stability and harmony.?

Natural, transparent Emerald is one in every of four ?Valuable? Gem stones (such as Diamond, Ruby and Sapphire), and is the green sort of Beryl, a beryllium aluminium silicate mineral coloured by way of trace amounts of chromium and/or vanadium. Emerald takes place in colorings ranging from yellow-inexperienced to blue-inexperienced, with the greatest being a natural verdant inexperienced hue, medium to darkish in tone. Light colored gemstones are commonly recognized by way of the species name, Green Beryl. Most Emeralds are exceedingly blanketed with surface breaking fissures, so their sturdiness, or resistance to breakage, is typically categorised as generally negative.

According to Indian lore, the call Emerald become first translated from Sanskrit as Marakata, meaning ?The inexperienced of developing things.? The term we use today is thought to derive from an historic Persian phrase that translated to the Greek as Smaragdus, that means ?Inexperienced stone,? The time period used in antiquity and mentioned a number of other green stones. Over time the Old French or Vulgar Latin versions, Esmeraulde, Esmaraldaor Esmaraldus became the current name, Emerald.

Emeralds in antiquity have been mined in Egypt for the reason that 1500 BCE, and India, and Austria on account that as a minimum the 14th century CE.

Colombia is by far the world's largest producer of emeralds, constituting 50–95% of the world production, with the number depending on the year, source and grade. Emerald production in Colombia has increased drastically in the last decade, increasing by 78% from 2000 to 2010. The three main emerald mining areas in Colombia are Muzo, Coscuez, and Chivor. Rare "trapiche" emeralds are found in Colombia, distinguished by ray-like spokes of dark impurities.

Zambia is the world's second biggest producer, with its Kafubu River area deposits (Kagem Mines) about 45 km (28 mi) southwest of Kitwe responsible for 20% of the world's production of gem quality stones in 2004. In the first half of 2011 the Kagem mines produced 3.74 tons of emeralds.

Emeralds are found all over the world in countries such as Afghanistan, Australia, Austria, Brazil, Bulgaria, Cambodia, Canada, China, Egypt, Ethiopia, France, Germany, India, Italy, Kazakhstan, Madagascar, Mozambique, Namibia, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Russia, Somalia, South Africa, Spain, Switzerland, Tanzania, United States, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. In the US, emeralds have been found in Connecticut, Montana, Nevada, North Carolina, and South Carolina. In Canada, in 1997 emeralds were discovered in the Yukon.

Chemical FormulaBe3Al2SiO6
Hardness7.5 - 8
Crystal SystemHexagonal
Refractive Index1.57 - 1.58
SG2.6 - 2.8
TransparencyTransparent to translucent
Double Refraction.006
Cleavage3,1 - basal
Mineral Class Beryl (Emerald)

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