TEKNOIOT: gem stone
Showing posts with label gem stone. Show all posts
Showing posts with label gem stone. Show all posts

31 May 2020

Alexandrite gemstone

Alexandrite is named after the Russian tsar Alexander II (1818-1881), the very first crystals having been discovered in April 1834 in the emerald mines near the Tokovaya River in the Urals. The discovery was made on the day the future tsar came of age. Although alexandrite is a relatively young gemstone, it certainly has a noble history. Since it shows both red and green, the principal colours of old Imperial Russia, it inevitably became the national stone of tsarist Russia.Beautiful alexandrite in top quality, however, is very rare indeed and hardly ever used in modern jewellery. In antique Russian jewellery you may come across it with a little luck, since Russian master jewellers loved this stone. Tiffany’s master gemologist George Frederick Kunz (1856-1932) was also fascinated by alexandrite, and the jeweller’s firm produced some beautiful series of rings and platinum ensembles at the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th century. Smaller alexandrites were occasionally also used in Victorian jewellery from England.

Alexandrite is the rare colour-change variety of the mineral chrysoberyl . Its rarity is a result of its unlikely chemical makeup. Alexandrite can only form when aluminium and beryllium combine with trace elements like iron, titanium and, most importantly, chromium. On rare occasion, vanadium may also be present. The unlikelihood of the rare element chromium being in the right place to combine with aluminium and beryllium under exactly the right conditions to create alexandrite is what makes it so rare and valuable

The magic of converting colorations.

The most sensational characteristic approximately this stone, however, is its unexpected potential to exchange its coloration. Green or bluish-inexperienced in sunlight hours, alexandrite turns a tender colour of pink, purplish-red or raspberry red in incandescent mild. This specific optical characteristic makes it one of the maximum treasured gemstones of all, particularly in nice qualities.

Alexandrite is very scarce: this is due to its chemical composition. It is basically a chrysoberyl , a mineral consisting of colourless or yellow transparent chrysoberyl , chrysoberyl cat’s eye and colour-changing alexandrite (also in cat’s eye varieties). It differs from other chrysoberyl s in that it not only contains iron and titanium, but also chromium as a major impurity. And it is this very element which accounts for the spectacular colour change. Rarely, vanadium may also play a part. According to CIBJO nomenclature, only chrysoberyl s displaying a distinct change of colour may be termed alexandrite.

Like many other gemstones, alexandrite emerged millions of years ago in a metamorphic environment. But unlike many others, its formation required specific geological conditions. The chemical elements beryllium (a major constituent in chrysoberyl ) and chromium (the colouring agent in alexandrite) have contrasting chemical characteristics and do not as a rule occur together, usually being found in contrasting rock types. Not only has Nature brought these contrasting rock types into contact with each other, but a lack of the chemical element silica (the second most common element in the Earth's crust) is also required to prevent the growth of emerald. This geological scenario has occurred only rarely in the Earth's history and, as a result, alexandrite crystals are very scarce indeed.

Alexandrite mining

Russia has remained the number one source of alexandrite given that gemstones from the mines of the Urals became to be had available on the market. When the Russian deposits have been thought to have been exhausted, interest inside the precise shade miracle decreased - mainly considering that alexandrites from other mines not often displayed the coveted colour alternate. But the scenario modified dramatically in 1987, when alexandrites had been observed in an area referred to as Hematita in Minas Gerais, Brazil. The Brazilian alexandrites showed each a extraordinary color exchange and properly readability and coloration. Thus the really dulled image of the wonderful stone acquired some other raise. The colour of the Brazilian stones is absolutely now not as robust a green as that of Russian alexandrite, but the coloration exchange is clearly discernible. Today Hematita is one of the most critical deposits of alexandrite in financial terms. Occasionally alexandrite with chatoyancy is observed there, an effect which has not yet been located in Russian alexandrite. Alexandrites also are acquired from resources in Sri Lanka, but the hue of those stones compares much less than favourably with that of the Uralian alexandrites. They seem inexperienced in daytime and a brownish pink in synthetic light. The Tunduru area in southern Tanzania has also produced some extraordinary specimens for the reason that mid-1990s. Alexandrites are also located in India, Burma, Madagascar and Zimbabwe. Although this stone is still considered a rarity, specialised gemstone dealers do stock it, specially considering the fact that progressed change relationships among Russia and the rest of the sector have ensured a higher supply of Russian alexandrites to the marketplace.

Chemical FormulaBeAl2O4
ColourBlue, Red, Green, Yellow, Pink, Purple, Gray, Multicolored
Hardness8.5
Crystal SystemOrthorhombic
Refractive Index1.744 - 1.755
SG3.5 - 3.8
TransparencyTransparent to nearly opaque
Double Refraction.009
LusterVitreous
Cleavage1,1 ; 3,2. Often exhibits parting along twinned crystals.
Mineral Class Chrysoberyl

28 May 2020

Benitoite Gemstone

Benitoite is a rare blue barium titanium silicate mineral, found in hydrothermally altered serpentinite. Benitoite fluoresces under short wave ultraviolet light, appearing bright blue to bluish white in colour. The more rarely seen clear to white benitoite crystals fluoresce red under long-wave UV light.

California designated benitoite as the official state gemstone in 1985. Benitoite is sometimes called the "blue diamond." First discovered near the headwaters of the San Benito River in 1907 (hence the name), benitoite is a very rare gem that ranges in colour from a light transparent blue to dark, sapphire blue, or occasionally a violet shade.

Benitoite (pronounced "ben-ee-toe-ite") was initially thought to be a sapphire, but after careful analysis was found to be a mineral new to science. Gem quality benitoite cyrstals are found only in California.

Benitoite typically occurs with an unusual set of minerals, along with minerals that make up its host rock. Frequently associated minerals include: natrolite, neptunite, joaquinite, serpentine and albite.

Benitoite is a rare mineral found in very few locations including San Benito County, California, Japan and Arkansas. In the San Benito occurrence, it is found in natrolite veins within glaucophane schist within a serpentinite body. In Japan, the mineral occurs in a magnesio-riebeckite-quartz-phlogopite-albite dike cutting a serpentinite body.

Benitoite Crystal under UV.

Physical Properties of Benitoite

Chemical FormulaBaTiSi3O9
ColourBlue
Hardness6 - 6.5
Crystal SystemHexagonal
Refractive Index1.75 - 1.80
SG3.6
TransparencyTransparent
Double Refraction0.047
LusterVitreous
Cleavage3,1
Mineral ClassBenitoite

25 May 2020

Diamond collection brings deep Earth to the surface.

Diamond collection brings deep Earth to the surface

Analysis of diamonds provides a look inside Earth's mantle

Summary:
It takes incredible heat and pressure to form a diamond. And when diamonds are formed, microscopic minerals are trapped inside. The chemistry of these minerals, or inclusions, provides a rare look at the processes that led to the formation of Earth's crust. Researchers have recently analyzed diamonds and have learned how an unusual chunk of Africa formed.

Analysis of diamonds from the Denver Museum of Nature & Science collection provide a look inside Earth's mantle.

Credit: Denver Museum of Nature & Science

Researchers at the Denver Museum of Nature & Science and University of British Columbia recently analyzed diamonds from the Museum's collection and learned how an unusual chunk of Africa formed.

It takes incredible heat and pressure to form a diamond. And when these diamonds were formed, microscopic minerals were trapped inside. The chemistry of these minerals, or inclusions, provides a rare look at the processes that led to the formation of Earth's crust. Inclusions found in the Museum's diamonds from the Congo craton in central southern Africa illustrate an incredible 3-billion-year journey through tectonic collisions and volcanic eruptions.

The international scientific team, led by author Charles W. Kosman, used an electron microprobe, an infrared spectrometer and a secondary ion mass spectrometer to analyze these diamonds.

"These diamonds are special," Kosman said. "They're the ultimate time capsules from deep Earth."

The researchers determined that the diamonds formed as thinner continental fragments and began their journey beneath the thick, buoyant continental crust of central Africa. Over 2.8 billion years, this part of the African continent repeatedly rammed into smaller and thinner fragments. These fragments slid downward back toward Earth's core where they were dehydrated by extreme heat and pressure, triggering the formation of diamonds. The diamonds were then brought to the surface in volatile eruptions, which pierced the hide of the ancient African continent and eventually deposited the diamonds on the surface.

"The circumstances that led to the formation of these diamonds trapping invaluable information inside are incredible," said James Hagadorn, Museum's curator of geology. "Grueling conditions -- temperatures five times hotter than your oven, and pressure 10 times that found below Mount Everest -- are what it takes to freeze clues to Earth's evolution for studies such as this one."

By knowing how and where diamonds like these are formed, it also informs the ability to predict where to find future diamond deposits. Museum collections are often overlooked as a resource for clues to Earth's delicate atmospheric history.

"Diamonds are a key part of our culture and industry. Not all diamonds end up on a ring or a saw-blade's edge. The ugly ones often have the coolest scientific stories to tell," said Hagadorn.

Story Source:

Materials provided byDenver Museum of Nature & Science.Note: Content may be edited for style and length.

Journal Reference:

  1. Charles W. Kosman, Maya G. Kopylova, Richard A. Stern, James W. Hagadorn, James F. Hurlbut.Cretaceous mantle of the Congo craton: Evidence from mineral and fluid inclusions in Kasai alluvial diamonds.Lithos, 2016; DOI: 10.1016/j.lithos.2016.07.004

Chrysoberyl

The name chrysoberyl comes from the Greek words chrysos, meaning golden, and beryllos, which refers to its beryllium content. Chrysoberyl has been a prized stone for thousands of years in Asia, as it is believed to provide the wearer with protection from the evil eye. There are three different gem varieties of chrysoberyl. Each of these stones is chemically alike, but optically very different, each one having a unique and beautiful feature of its own. The pale yellow green variety of chrysoberyl came from Brazil, and was known as chrysolite. It was popular in Spanish and Portugese jewelry in the 18th and 19th centuries. This stone displays an exceptional brilliance. Chrysoberyl is the third-hardest frequently encountered natural gemstone and lies at 8.5 on the hardness scale, between corundum and topaz.

Like the eye of a sleek feline predator, the chrysoberyl cat's eye winks at the astonished observer – a real miracle of Nature! That's why only this attractive gemstone has the right to the short, fitting name of "cat's eye". This gem is really something special with its narrow, bright band of light on a shimmering golden background, which seems to glide magically across the surface when the stone is moved.

Often, the name chrysoberyl is spoken in the same breath as that of the beryl group, the most well known representatives of which include the emerald and the aquamarine. The name 'chrysoberyl' comes from the Greek and means 'gold-coloured beryl'. In spite of its name, however, it is not actually a beryl at all. Together with alexandrite, chrysoberyl forms an independent gemstone category, in which the former, which appears to change its colour, is regarded as the more attractive representative, though in fact it is quite definitely the chrysoberyl cat's eye which is entitled to stake that claim.

From a mineralogical point of view, chrysoberyls are aluminium oxide containing beryllium, and thus actually have little in common with the beryls, which belong to the silicate family. Indeed, with their excellent hardness of 8.5 on the Mohs scale, they are clearly superior to the beryls. The popular chrysoberyls come in many nuances between lemon and greenish yellow, and in honey colours and shades from mint green to brownish green, and are mostly found in the gemstone deposits of Brazil, Sri Lanka or East Africa.

Popular Chrysoberyl

Alexandrite’s color change is caused by small amounts of iron or chromium. Alexandrite is also strongly pleochroic, appearing green, red, orange or yellow when viewed from different directions. Cat’s eye on the other hand, displays no pleochroism. The stone ranges in color from a honey yellow or honey brown color, to a yellowish green or almost emerald green. The most highly prized cat’s eye color however, is a light golden brown. Cat’s eye has a lovely velvety, silk like texture and is different than the common quartz variety of cat’s eye, which is brown and called tiger’s eye. Tiger’s eye is much weaker in color than cat’s eye.

Almandine

Almandine, also known incorrectly as almandite, is a species of mineral belonging to the garnet group. The name is a corruption of alabandicus, which is the name applied by Pliny the Elder to a stone found or worked at Alabanda, a town in Caria in Asia Minor. Almandine is an iron alumina garnet, of deep red colour, inclining to purple. It is frequently cut with a convex face, or in cabochon, and is then known as carbuncle. Viewed through the spectroscope in a strong light, it generally shows three characteristic absorption bands.

It is also a popular gemstone and the maximum broadly used Garnet inside the gem trade. More gems are faceted from Almandine than some other kind of Garnet. Only a small amount of Almandine crystals are obvious and light enough for gemstone use; maximum of the Almandine observed is tough and opaque and no longer gem exceptional. Some Almandine Garnets show asterism while polished as cabochons, and are called "Star Garnets".

Occurence

Almandine is frequently embedded in a mica schists, and forms very quality matrix portions with flawlessly formed symmetrical crystals. The schist matrix often breaks up due to weathering, ensuing in the Almandine crystals breaking free into character, flawlessly shaped floater crystals which can be pretty massive.

Almandine deposits

Almandine happens rather abundantly in the gem-gravels of Sri Lanka, whence it has occasionally been known as Ceylon-ruby. When the color inclines to a violet tint, the stone is often known as Syriam garnet, a name stated to be taken from Syriam, an historic metropolis of Pegu (now a part of Myanmar). Large deposits of great almandine-garnets had been determined, a few years in the past, in the Northern Territory of Australia, and were in the beginning taken for rubies and thus they had been regarded in change for some time afterwards as Australian rubies.

Almandine is broadly dispensed. Fine rhombic dodecahedra occur inside the schistose rocks of the Zillertal, in Tyrol, and are once in a while cut and polished. An almandine wherein the ferrous oxide is replaced partly by way of magnesia is determined at Luisenfeld in German East Africa. In the United States there are many localities which yield almandine. Fine crystals of almandine embedded in mica-schist occur near Wrangell in Alaska. The coarse kinds of almandine are often crushed to be used as an abrasive agent.

Types of Almandine Garnet consist of Carbuncle, Merelini Mint Garnet, Thai Garnet, Grandite, and Precious Garnet. Some uncommon Almandine crystals from India or Idaho have asbestos inclusions that create a exceptionally prized, megastar-like impact while faceted. Precious, or Noble Garnet, is deep red and obvious. Brown and opaque Almandine is ferrous and aluminum-like with lines of manganese and/or magnesium.

Healing homes of Almandine

In this text, the metaphysical residences of Almandine Garnet are explored. Almandine is a strong regenerative recovery crystal bringing electricity and stamina, and aids stream and all blood related problems.

It is an exceptional crystal for fertility, sexual potency and libido. Emotionally, Almandine cultivates a experience of safety, protection and abundance. It is related to the First Chakra and has the healing power to help arouse the kundalini and maintain the ones energies grounded.

It is a stone of physical love and relationships, and a non secular stone of psychic protection. It increases self-control and resistance to all things poor. Almandine Garnet degrees in color from light to deep scarlet, dark red, and muted sunglasses of brown.

A host of angels are associated with its shade energies and it honours three Goddesses. Garnet is the conventional birthstone of January, and Almandine is the natural birthstones of those born within the first month of autumn and mid-autumn.

Garnet is the zodiac stone for the ones born beneath the signal Aquarius, and is an Enhancer Strengthener crystal. It has the houses of fire power and is a talisman of protection.

Physical Properties of Almandine

Chemical FormulaFe3Al2Si3O12
ColourRed, Black
Hardness7.5 - 8.5
Crystal SystemIsometric
Refractive Index1.780 - 1.810
SG4.3
TransparencyTransparent to translucent
Double RefractionNone
LusterVitreous
CleavageNone. May exhibit parting.
Mineral ClassAlmandine (Garnet)

24 May 2020

Amazonite

Amazonite (sometimes called "Amazon stone") is a green variety of microcline feldspar. The name is taken from that of the Amazon River, from which certain green stones were formerly obtained, but it is doubtful whether green feldspar occurs in the Amazon area.

A green to blue-inexperienced sort of K-feldspar, usually microcline, but from time to time carried out to orthoclase. The coloration is usually caused by an improved content of Pb (up to one.2% PbO).

However, there are also symptoms that the green colour of a few microcline is caused by divalent Fe. Overenthusiastic uses of this call include giving this call to barely gray-inexperienced colorations in microcline that are regularly photosensitive and turn from greenish grey to light smoky gray. Sunlight can sometimes enhance the coloration of real amazonite.

Amazonite homes

Mohs Hardness of 6-6.5 with a triclinic crystal structure. Amazonite or Microcline is a form of alkali feldspar, and it’s colour is due to the presence of lead. Although the main colour of Amazonite is teal it may also be partially colourless, white, yellow, pink, red, gray or green. It’s striking colour is due to the presence of lead and is that mineral that determines the depth of the colour.

Occurrence

Amazonite is a mineral of limited occurrence. Formerly it was obtained almost exclusively from the area of Miass in the Ilmensky Mountains, 50 miles southwest of Chelyabinsk, Russia, where it occurs in granitic rocks. More recently, high-quality crystals have been obtained from Pike's Peak, Colorado, where it is found associated with smoky quartz, orthoclase, and albite in a coarse granite or pegmatite. Crystals of amazonite can also be found in Crystal Park, El Paso County, Colorado. Other locations in the United States which yield amazonite include the Morefield Mine in Amelia, Virginia. It is also found in pegmatite in Madagascar and in Brazil.

Because of its vivid green coloration when polished, amazonite is once in a while reduce and used as a reasonably-priced gemstone, even though it is without difficulty fractured, and loses its gloss because of its softness.

For many years, the source of amazonite's colour was a mystery. Naturally, many people assumed the colour was due to copper because copper compounds often have blue and green colours. More recent studies suggest that the blue-green colour results from small quantities of lead and water in the feldspar.

Amazonite recuperation residences

Amazonite assists in speaking one?S true thoughts and feelings with out over-emotionalism. It additionally permits one to see a problem from some other?S point of view for you to affect peace, or to see both facets of an trouble objectively to remedy one?S own inner conflicts. Sleeping with an Amazonite can convey these additives into recognition via the symbolism of goals.

As a guide stone, Amazonite aids in overcoming loneliness, and has been credited with making married lifestyles happier.

Amazonite is a Barrier Filter crystal that blocks geopathic stress, absorbs microwaves and cell smartphone emanations, and protects towards electromagnetic pollutants. Place it near computer systems and other electronics, or tape on your mobile cellphone.

In the place of work, Amazonite dispels negative energy and aggravation, and protects towards unfair commercial enterprise practices and others taking advantage. A stone of prosperity, Amazonite attracts new customers and orders to a business, and assists one in being within the proper area on the right time for brand new possibilities.

Amazonite is a superb good fortune stone for video games of chance, competitions and luck in any monetary project. To make a fortunate-attraction, combine three Amazonites and a small quantity of basil and mint in a small pouch. Leave it in front of a turquoise candle until the candle burns down.

Hide an Amazonite in a infant?S or teen?S bedroom to encourage tidiness, and maintain a dish of Amazonites on the kitchen table to influence others to assist more with chores.

Physical Properties of Amazonite

Chemical FormulaKAlSi3O8
ColourBlue, Green, Purple, Gray, Multicolored
Hardness6 - 6.5
Crystal SystemTriclinic
Refractive Index1.52 - 1.53
SG2.56 - 2.58
TransparencyTranslucent to opaque
Double Refraction-.008
LusterVitreous
Cleavage2,1 - basal ; 2,1 - prismatic ; 3,1 - pinacoidal
Mineral ClassMicrocline

Amber Gemstone

Amber is fossilised tree resin (not sap), which has been appreciated for its colour and natural beauty since Neolithic times. Much valued from antiquity to the present as a gemstone, amber is made into a variety of decorative objects. Amber is used as an ingredient in perfumes, as a healing agent in folk medicine, and as jewellery.

Amber is heterogeneous in composition, but consists of several resinous bodies more or less soluble in alcohol, ether and chloroform, associated with an insoluble bituminous substance. Amber is a macro-molecule by free radical polymerisation of several precursors in the labdane family, e.g. communic acid, cummunol, and biformene. These labdanes are diterpenes (C20H32) and trienes, equipping the organic skeleton with three alkene groups for polymerisation. As amber matures over the years, more polymerisation takes place as well as isomerization reactions, cross-linking and cyclization.

Molecular polymerisation, attributable to excessive pressures and temperatures produced with the aid of overlying sediment, transforms the resin first into copal. Sustained warmth and pressure drives off terpenes and consequences in the formation of amber.

For this to take place, the resin ought to be proof against decay. Many trees produce resin, but in the majority of instances this sediment is broken down by means of physical and biological techniques. Exposure to sunlight, rain, microorganisms (along with bacteria and fungi), and severe temperatures has a tendency to disintegrate resin. For resin to live on lengthy sufficient to grow to be amber, it must be immune to such forces or be produced beneath conditions that exclude them.

Amber is globally distributed, mainly in rocks of Cretaceous age or younger. Historically, the Samland coast west of Königsberg in Prussia was the world's leading source of amber. First mentions of amber deposits here date back to the 12th century. About 90% of the world's extractable amber is still located in that area, which became the Kaliningrad Oblast of Russia in 1946.

Pieces of amber torn from the seafloor are solid up by means of the waves, and collected by way of hand, dredging, or diving. Elsewhere, amber is mined, each in open works and underground galleries. Then nodules of blue earth must be eliminated and an opaque crust must be wiped clean off, which may be accomplished in revolving barrels containing sand and water. Erosion gets rid of this crust from sea-worn amber.

Caribbean amber, especially Dominican blue amber, is mined through bell pitting, that is risky due to the danger of tunnel fall apart.

The oldest amber recovered dates to the Upper Carboniferous period (320 million years ago). Its chemical composition makes it difficult to match the amber to its producers – it is most similar to the resins produced by flowering plants; however, there are no flowering plant fossils until the Cretaceous, and they were not common until the Upper Cretaceous. Amber becomes abundant long after the Carboniferous, in the Early Cretaceous, 150 million years ago, when it is found in association with insects. The oldest amber with arthropod inclusions comes from the Levant, from Lebanon and Jordan. This amber, roughly 125–135 million years old, is considered of high scientific value, providing evidence of some of the oldest sampled ecosystems.

In Lebanon more than 450 outcrops of Lower Cretaceous amber were discovered by Dany Azar a Lebanese paleontologist and entomologist. Among these outcrops 20 have yielded biological inclusions comprising the oldest representatives of several recent families of terrestrial arthropods. Even older, Jurassic amber has been found recently in Lebanon as well. Many remarkable insects and spiders were recently discovered in the amber of Jordan including the oldest zorapterans, clerid beetles, umenocoleid roaches, and achiliid planthoppers.

Baltic amber or succinite (historically documented as Prussian amber) is found as irregular nodules in marine glauconitic sand, known as blue earth, occurring in the Lower Oligocene strata of Sambia in Prussia (in historical sources also referred to as Glaesaria). After 1945 this territory around Königsberg was turned into Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia, where amber is now systematically mined.

It seems, but, to were in part derived from older Eocene deposits and it happens additionally as a derivative section in later formations, which include glacial drift. Relics of an abundant vegetation arise as inclusions trapped inside the amber at the same time as the resin become yet clean, suggesting family members with the plants of Eastern Asia and the southern a part of North America. Heinrich G?Ppert named the not unusual amber-yielding pine of the Baltic forests Pinites succiniter, but because the wood does no longer appear to vary from that of the prevailing genus it's been also referred to as Pinus succinifera. It is incredible, but, that the production of amber was restricted to a unmarried species; and certainly a huge number of conifers belonging to specific genera are represented in the amber-flora.

Amber Healing Properties

Physical Properties of Amber

They may useful resource the feelings, and via their position to help emotional recovery they help to create a extra fine outlook on life.

Their role inside the sacral chakra manner that it this a sturdy stone that will help you to enhance your creativity.

These stones hyperlink the everyday self to the spiritual self.

It is thought to be one of the higher herbal crystals to use for safety from psychic assault.

This golden yellow resin is distinctly defensive against any form of negativity, in particular from psychic assets.

Amber stone has many wonderful traits for healing the physical and emotional body. It is well worth the usage of as it is able to also heal health problems you forgot you had until they are long gone.

Chemical FormulaAmber is composed of complex organic material without any definitive chemical formula. Its inherent substance can also vary depending on its origination.
ColourBlue, Red, Green, Yellow, Orange, Brown
Hardness2 - 2.5
Crystal SystemAmorphous
Refractive Index1.539 - 1.545
SG1.0 - 1.1
TransparencyTransparent to nearly opaque
LusterResinous
CleavageNone

Amethyst Gemstone

Amethyst is a violet variety of quartz often used in jewellery. The name comes from the ancient Greek ἀ a- ("not") and μέθυστοςméthystos ("intoxicated"), a reference to the belief that the stone protected its owner from drunkenness. The ancient Greeks wore amethyst and made drinking vessels decorated with it in the belief that it would prevent intoxication. It is one of several forms of quartz. Amethyst is a semiprecious stone and is the traditional birthstone for February.

The shade in amethyst from most localities is inconsistently disbursed within the person crystals. In amethyst geodes it is frequently most intense in the boom zones beneath the rhombohedral faces (at the hints). Occasionally the shade is deeper under both the r or z rhombohedral faces, giving the crystal a pinwheel appearance when considered from the pinnacle. In prismatic crystals the coloration may additionally appear in phantom-like skinny layers, whilst in sceptres and skeleton quartz the coloration is often concentrated alongside the edges, and followed by way of smoky zones. Despite the acute coloration, the content material of iron occupying Si positions in amethyst is as an alternative low, within the 10-one hundred ppm variety.

When heated to extra than about 300-400?C, amethyst loses its violet shade and frequently turns yellow, orange or brown, after which resembles the quartz variety citrine, however relying on the locality and the temperature at some point of the heat treatment it may additionally turn colourless or not often green.

Irradiation with UV mild may also spoil the color centres, and for this reason extended exposure to sunlight will slowly fade amethyst. The image to the proper indicates the effects of warmth (backside left and proper) and UV irradiation (pinnacle right) at the colour of a specimen from Uruguay.

Amethyst is pleochroic whilst the polarisation of the mild is modified from parallel to the c-axis to perpendicular to the c-axis, amethyst modifications its coloration from blue-violet to pink. The electricity of the impact varies to a widespread degree, and modifications inside the hue depending at the direction of the transmitted light can be observable with the naked eye, in particular in crystals with a zonar improvement of color, which may also even show sky-blue tones.

Amethyst Crystals

Amethyst crystals do not get very large, crystals longer than 30 cm are very rare. It is discovered in numerous paperwork and shapes, the maximum not unusual growth paperwork are:

  1. Druzy crystal aggregates that outline cavities; the crystals are usually short-prismatic and often lack prism faces. Most common in volcanic rocks, but also in hydrothermal veins, and even in cavities in sedimentary rocks;
  2. Scepters (late syntaxial overgrowth) on other color varieties of quartz, in particular in high- to medium-temperature environments like alpine-type fissures and pegmatites
  3. Split-growth crystals ("artichoke quartz") in hydrothermal veins in ore deposits, but also in volcanic rocks.
  4. As individual well-formed crystals in small cavities and fissures, in particular in volcanic rocks.
  5. As hydrothermal vein filling, often with several growth phases with variable color that cause a banding pattern.

Occurrences

Amethyst is produced in abundance from the state of Minas Gerais in Brazil where it occurs in huge geodes within volcanic rocks. Many of the hollow agates of southwestern Brazil and Uruguay comprise a crop of amethyst crystals inside the interior. Artigas, Uruguay and neighbouring Brazilian state Rio Grande do Sul are massive global producers exceeding in amount Minas Gerais, in addition to Mato Grosso, Espirito Santo, Bahia, and Cear? States, all amethyst producers of significance in Brazil.

It is also determined and mined in South Korea. The largest opencast amethyst vein in the world is in Maissau, Lower Austria. Much best amethyst comes from Russia, specifically from close to Mursinka inside the Ekaterinburg district, where it occurs in drusy cavities in granitic rocks. Many localities in south India yield amethyst. One of the most important worldwide amethyst manufacturers is Zambia in southern Africa with an annual production of approximately 1000 tonnes.

Amethyst occurs at many localities in the United States. Among these may be mentioned: the Mazatzal Mountain region in Gila and Maricopa Counties, Arizona; Red Feather Lakes, near Ft Collins, Colorado; Amethyst Mountain, Texas; Yellowstone National Park; Delaware County, Pennsylvania; Haywood County, North Carolina; Deer Hill and Stow, Maine and in the Lake Superior region of Minnesota, Wisconsin and Michigan. Amethyst is relatively common in the Canadian provinces of Ontario and Nova Scotia. The largest amethyst mine in North America is located in Thunder Bay, Ontario.

Amethyst types

Purple Amethyst

Purple Amethyst has been highly esteemed throughout the ages for its stunning beauty and legendary powers to stimulate, and soothe, the mind and emotions. It is a semi-precious stone in today’s classifications, but to the ancients it was a “Gem of Fire,” a Precious Stone worth, at times in history, as much as a Diamond. It has always been associated with February, the month the Romans dedicated to Neptune, their water-god, and is the traditional birthstone of that month. It is the stone of St. Valentine and faithful love, and signifies ecclesiastical dignity as the Bishop’s Stone. It carries the energy of fire and passion, creativity and spirituality, yet bears the logic of temperance and sobriety.

Brandberg Amethyst

Brandberg Amethyst is a unique and extraordinary blend of Amethyst, Clear and Smoky Quartz together in one exceedingly high-vibrational crystal. It is found only in Namibia, Africa, and is imbued with remarkable phantoms, enhydros, and other rare formations and inclusions. It attunes to pure consciousness and is a potent talisman of healing and perfection with the capacity to restore one back to their etheric blueprint in order to realign with the Divine Source.

Chevron Amethyst

Chevron Amethyst displays v-shaped chevrons of deep purple and white Quartz that “seep” into beautiful layers. It is one of the finest Third-Eye stones for stimulating vision within the self as well as the physical world, filtering the life force from the cosmos via the Crown in its white layers and opening up spiritual and psychic channels through the purple. It has a strong, focused energy for dissipating and repelling negativity, and is the perfect crystal for learning any form of spiritual healing. Hold one in each hand for powerful but safe out-of-body travel, shamanic journeying or pathworking, and between the hands while praying or reciting mantras.

Cacoxenite in Amethyst

Cacoxenite in Amethyst mingles dark brown to yellow tufts of Cacoxenite, a phosphate mineral and major component in the Super Seven crystal, with the host crystal Amethyst. This combination brings a high level of creativity and new ideas to humanity by fostering thoughts that have never been thought of before. It is a calming stone, good in times of upheaval, and raises spiritual awareness of the creator essence in the beauty of nature and the kindness in people. Carry on the night of the crescent and full moon to transfer healing energy to the Earth and create an ethereal connection between all of the universe.

Rutiliated Amethyst

“Rutilated” Amethyst is a rare form of Amethyst which appears to contain Rutile, but actually contains brownish crystals of Goethite, an iron hydroxide mineral also found in the Super Seven crystal. Goethite is a stone for finding the link between the deep self and Earth, and together with Amethyst clears the Earth and Base Chakras, aligning the whole chakra system to the higher mind. It purifies the emotional body and is particularly helpful in grief work. It facilitates clairaudience, communion with angels, and connections with other worlds. To program as a wishing stone or with intentions, messages, and prayers, simply hold the stone with the intent in mind.

Amethyst Healing Properties

Amethyst is a wonderful talisman to be used inside the creative arts, especially in darker sunglasses. It assists endeavours wherein new, original consequences want to be created the usage of equipment and strategies of the past. It is often used as the Artist?S Stone, the Composer?S Stone, the Inventor?S, Poet?S and Painter?S Stones. Keep an Amethyst crystal or cluster within the area to consciousness and enlarge the innovative factors of the Universal Life Force.

Called the ?All-healer,? Amethyst is one of the only crystals for restoration human beings, plant life and animals. Natural unpolished Amethysts or geodes are mainly helpful located wherein flora will now not grow or animals refuse to sit. It additionally counteracts poor earth energies below buildings or anywhere that feels adversarial.

Amethyst protects towards psychic assault, paranormal damage or unwell-wishing, and returns the strength returned to the universe after being converted into positive, loving strength. To increase this electricity and entice proper good fortune, draw an photo of the solar and the crescent moon over an Amethyst in lavender incense smoke.

Referred to as ?Nature?S tranquilliser,? Amethyst calms and soothes, helping the transmission of neural indicators through the mind. It relieves obsessive compulsive disease and hyperactivity in children and animals. Place under the pillow or mattress, or rub the centre of the brow counter-clockwise to cure insomnia and stimulate first-rate dreams. It is particularly effective for kids?S routine nightmares and fears of the dark, and may assist alleviate homesickness.

Amethyst is an first rate stone for diplomats, negotiators and business people. It calms angry temperaments and gives a wonderful benefit in situations in which debating is needed. Wear or keep Amethyst to herald spiritual insights coupled with highbrow reasoning. As a good fortune and prosperity crystal, Amethyst is ideal for lowering the tendency to overspend, gambling addictions or unwise investments.

Amethyst is hooked up to the Temperance card within the tarot, representing stability. It is a stone devoted to curbing overindulgence and horrific habits, and is an first rate aid to quitting smoking, drinking and drug use, as well as bad bodily passion. It additionally presents the energy had to attain freedom from addictive personalities, one?S personal or some other?S. Placing an Amethyst at the navel is thought to defend someone from intoxication, and along with other treatments including counselling, allows therapy addictions. A naval piercing makes it possible to constantly maintain an Amethyst in this spot.

Amethyst is the stone of St. Valentine and of devoted fanatics because St. Valentine changed into idea to have worn an Amethyst ring engraved with the image of Cupid. It is likewise referred to as the ?Couple?S stone? And offers that means to relationships that over time, transcends the carnal union and offers manner to deeper connection and a extra soulful communion. Wear as an engagement or eternity ring for constancy, or as a locket to call again misplaced love.

Physical houses of Amethyst

Chemical FormulaSiO2
Colour Purple
Hardness7
Crystal SystemHexagonal
Refractive Index1.54 - 1.55
SG2.63 - 2.65
TransparencyTransparent to translucent
Double Refraction.009
LusterVitreous
CleavageIndiscernible
Mineral ClassQuartz

23 May 2020

Andesine gemstone

Andesine is a silicate mineral, a member of the plagioclase feldspar solid solution series. Its chemical formula is (Ca, Na)(Al, Si)4O8, where Ca/(Ca + Na) (% Anorthite) is between 30%-50%. The plagioclase feldspars are a continuous solid solution series and as such the accurate identification of individual members requires detailed optical study, chemical analysis or density measurements. Refractive indices and specific gravity increase directly with calcium content.

Andesine feldspar is composed of fifty-70% albite and 30-50% anorthite.

Andesine was first described in 1841 for an occurrence in the Marmato mine, Colombia. It is named after the Andes mountains of South America. The name is for the Andes due to its abundance in the andesite lavas in those mountains.

Andesine is found in a range of colours, from red, honey-red to orange, yellow, champagne and green. In the early 2000s, red and green gemstones began to be marketed under the name of 'Andesine'. After some controversy, these gemstones were subsequently discovered to have been artificially-coloured.

Occurrence

Andesine takes place in intermediate igneous rocks which includes diorite, syenite and andesite. It ordinarily happens in metamorphic rocks of granulite to amphibolite facies generally displaying antiperthite texture. It also occurs as detrital grains in sedimentary rocks. It is normally associated with quartz, potassium feldspar, biotite, hornblende and magnetite.

Andesine Healing Properties

As a protecting stone, carrying andesine jewelry or virtually wearing the stone around will save you the release of essential energies at the same time as also acting to deflect undesirable power. Use while round in particular bad humans or situations. Wearing a labradorite pendant is useful for touchy human beings.

Like all metaphysical crystals andesine gemstone can effect the thoughts, thought-styles, and psychological well-being. This stone acts to connect the intuition with the mind. What impact does this synergy have? It enables innovative notion, which is good for innovators, therapists, writers, and any paintings in which the combination of concrete mind and deeper awareness is favored.

Chemical Formula(Na,Ca)Al1-2Si3-2O8
ColourRed, Green, Yellow, Orange, Pink, Multicoloured
Hardness6 - 6.5
Crystal SystemTriclinic
Refractive Index1.560 - 1.568
SG2.69 - 2.70
TransparencyTransparent to translucent
Double Refraction.008
LusterVitreous
Cleavage2,1 - basal ; 2,1 - prismatic ; 3,1 - pinacoidal.
Mineral ClassPlagioclase feldspar (Also see the minerals Andesine and Labradorite))

Andradite Gemstone

Andradite is a species of the garnet group. It was named after the Brazilian mineralogist José Bonifácio de Andrade e Silva (1763–1838). Andradite includes three varieties:

  1. Melanite: Black in color, referred to as "titanian andradite".
  2. Demantoid: Vivid green in color, one of the most valuable and rare stones in the gemological world.
  3. Topazolite: Yellow-green in color and sometimes of high enough quality to be cut into a faceted gemstone, it is rarer than demantoid.

Occurrence

Melanite

It occurs in skarns developed in contact metamorphosed impure limestones or calcic igneous rocks; in chlorite schists and serpentinites and in alkalic igneous rocks (typically titaniferous). Associated minerals include vesuvianite, chlorite, epidote, spinel, calcite, dolomite and magnetite. It is found in Italy, the Ural Mountains of Russia, Arizona and California and in Dnipropetrovsk Oblast in Ukraine. Like the other garnets, andradite crystallizes in the cubic space group, with unit-cell parameter of 12.051 Å at 100 K. The spin structure of andradite contains two mutually canted equivalent antiferromagnetic sublattices below the Néel temperature.

Demantoid
Topazolite

The energies and recovery powers of Andradite Garnet reflect the energy and protection of all garnets. Its physical restoration electricity encourages the stimulation and regeneration of blood, the assimilation of crucial minerals, and strengthens the immune device.

Emotionally, Andradite Garnet brings strength, stability and stability, selling self-self assurance and self-esteem. It is associated with the Base, Heart and Solar Plexus Chakras, opening up the mind to higher wondering and higher relationships, and stimulating creativity, will and cognizance.

It is a effective religious purifier. Andradite Garnet degrees in coloration power from green to dark olive, deep yellow, and a glossy black. Melanite, the black range is an awesome meditation useful resource with effective grounding capabilities.

A host of angels are associated with Andradite's shade energies and it honors two Goddesses. Garnet is the traditional birthstone of January, and Andradite is the herbal birthstones of those born in the inside the heart of spring (April 20-May 20) and the beginning of summer time (June 21-July 21).

Garnet is the zodiac stone for the ones born beneath the sign Aquarius, and is an Enhancer Strengthener crystal. It has the residences of Wood and Water energies, and is a talisman of protection.

Chemical FormulaCa3Fe3+ 2Si3O12
ColourRed, Green, Yellow, Orange, Brown, Pink, Gray, Black, Multicoloured
Hardness6.5 - 7.5
Crystal SystemIsometric
Refractive Index1.888 - 1.889
SG3.8 - 3.9
TransparencyTransparent to opaque
Double RefractionNone
LusterAdamantine, submetallic
CleavageNone
Mineral ClassAndradite (Garnet)

Aquamarine Gemstone

Aquamarine is a member of the beryl family. This stone is known for its blue to blue-green colour. The name comes from the Latin for “sea water”, and aquamarine folklore is usually tied to sailors and the sea. Aquamarine is the birthstone for March and it’s a popular gem that wears well, is readily available, and moderately priced.

Aquamarine is a member of the beryl own family and levels in shade from an nearly colourless light blue to blue-inexperienced or teal. The maximum prize color is a deep-blue aqua color. It is 7.5-8 at the Mohs scale of hardness and gets its call from Latin phrases that means water and sea.

The most precious aquamarines come from Brazil, however it's also mined in Kenya and Nigeria, Madagascar, Zambia, Tanzania, Sri Lanka, Pakistan, Afghanistan and Russia. . Aquamarines available on the market these days are usually faceted, however whilst reduce as a cabochon, they will display a cat's eye impact called asterism.

Some gemstones are heated to high temperatures to beautify the colour and/or clarity of a stone. Aquamarines are often warmness dealt with to trade a blue-green or teal coloured stone to a pure blue. This effects in a permanent colour change.

Aquamarine Healing Properties

Associated with the Throat chakra, Aquamarine enables triumph over the fear of talking, and is an extremely good stone for instructors and presenters of every kind. It relaxes audio system to a stage of consciousness wherein they're fully aware about their very own truths, awareness and emotions, and capable of articulate them with clarity and conviction. It also lets in one to speak certainly and with out anger in tough conditions.

Aquamarine accelerates the intellectual reasoning processes and enhances the ability for rapid response. It makes one unconquerable through learning, not only about the physical world, but about oneself.  It bestows perseverance, discipline and light heartedness.

Aquamarine encourages an appropriate of provider to the arena and to the development of a humanity attuned to recuperation. It emits a gentle and compassionate energy, selling moderation and duty for ones' movements. It evokes judgemental people to be greater tolerant, and facilitates those overwhelmed via obligation to discover order.

A stone of natural justice, Aquamarine utilises compromise and negotiation, and gives quiet braveness and clear reasoned phrases in confrontational conditions. Pass Aquamarine over any written court cases you get hold of or before you ship any out, wear or convey Aquamarine while travelling your baby's school because of a grievance, or while resolving neighbourhood disputes over parking or limitations.

As a tour crystal, greenish blue Aquamarine protects folks that journey through sea, assuaging the concern of water, and guards the ones concerned in any long-haul travel such as flying or driving lengthy distances. It is a good stone for getting to know to swim.

As a love crystal, faded blue Aquamarine encourages a lover to return, allows human beings with distinct existence to stay together in harmony, and decreases the effects of touchy troubles that motive quarrels. Aquamarine is frequently given as a love token or eternity ring, and will increase dedication and fidelity "as long as the waters of the earth waft."

Physical Properties of Aquamarine

Chemical FormulaBe3Al2SiO6
ColourBlue
Hardness7.5 - 8.0
Crystal SystemHexagonal
Refractive Index1.57 - 1.58
SG2.6 - 2.8
TransparencyTransparent to translucent
Double Refraction.006
LusterVitreous
Cleavage3,1 - basal
Mineral Class Beryl (Aquamarine)

22 May 2020

Aventurine Gemstone

Aventurine is a form of quartz, characterised by its translucency and the presence of platy mineral inclusions that give a shimmering or glistening effect termed aventurescence.

The most common colour of aventurine is green, but it may also be orange, brown, yellow, blue, or gray. Chrome-bearing fuchsite (a variety of muscovite mica) is the classic inclusion, and gives a silvery green or blue sheen. Oranges and browns are attributed to hematite or goethite. Because aventurine is a rock, its physical properties vary: its specific gravity may lie between 2.64-2.69 and its hardness is somewhat lower than single-crystal quartz at around 6.5.

Aventurine feldspar or sunstone can be confused with orange and red aventurine quartzite, although the former is generally of a higher transparency. Aventurine is often banded and an overabundance of fuchsite may render it opaque, in which case it may be mistaken for malachite at first glance.

The call aventurine derives from the Italian "a ventura" which means "by using danger". This is an allusion to the lucky discovery of aventurine glass or goldstone sooner or later in the 18th century. Although it changed into recognized first, goldstone is now a not unusual imitation of aventurine and sunstone. Goldstone is prominent visually from the latter two minerals through its coarse flecks of copper, dispersed within the glass in an unnaturally uniform way. It is mostly a golden brown, but will also be determined in blue or inexperienced.

The majority of green and blue-inexperienced aventurine originates in India (in particular in the area of Mysore and Chennai) where it is hired by way of prolific artisans. Creamy white, gray and orange cloth is discovered in Chile, Spain and Russia. Most fabric is carved into beads and collectible figurines with simplest the finer examples usual into cabochons, later being set into jewellery.

Green Aventurine includes a robust connection to Earth and the devic state, supplying a better information and appreciation of nature and its soothing vibrations upon the mind and body. It is an first-rate stone for gridding homes or gardens towards geopathic stress.

Wearing Aventurine also absorbs electromagnetic smog and guards against environmental pollution. Taped to a mobile smartphone, it protects towards its emanations.

Green Aventurine energetically stimulates the physical growth of untimely babies, younger kids and young adults. It will increase universal energy and enhances the intellectual improvement of youngsters suffering with schoolwork and damaging hyperactivity. It assists adults with written work, typing and pc abilties, and is useful to all in overcoming clumsiness.

Aventurine can be made into an elixir to drink or used in ablutions through soaking a stone fragment in demineralized water overnight (we advise the indirect technique). It is extraordinarily useful for combating eczema, rosacea, juvenile zits, and different pores and skin problems.

Aventurine is ideal for soothing brief-tempers or brutal temperaments, and can substantially lessen the effects of domestic strife between spouses.

For the ones searching out love of their mature years, Green Aventurine may be used as a love crystal or introduced to a Heart Chakra format because it encourages love later in life.

Chemical FormulaSiO2
ColourBlue, Green, Yellow, Orange, Brown, Gray
Hardness6.5 - 7
Crystal SystemHexagonal
Refractive Index1.54 - 1.55
SG2.63 - 2.65
TransparencyOpaque. May be translucent when backlit on the edges.
Double Refraction.009
LusterVitreous, waxy
CleavageIndiscernible
Mineral ClassQuartz /Chalcedony

Bloodstone

The mineral aggregate heliotrope, also known as bloodstone, is a variety of jasper or chalcedony (which is a cryptocrystalline mixture of quartz). The "classic" bloodstone is green jasper (chalcedony) with red inclusions of hematite.

The red inclusions are supposed to resemble spots of blood; hence the name "bloodstone". The name "heliotrope" derives from various ancient notions about the manner in which the mineral reflects light.

Heliotrope was called "stone of Babylon" by Albert the Great and he referred to several magical properties, which were attributed to it from Late Antiquity. Pliny the Elder (1st century) mentioned first that the magicians used it as a stone of invisibility. Damigeron (4th century) wrote about its property to make rain, solar eclipse and its special virtue in divination and preserving health and youth.

Heliotrope capabilities as an invisibility stone in one of Boccaccio's testimonies in the Decameron and as an healing magic object in a musical comedy derived from it.

Heliotrope is sometimes utilized in carved signet earrings and is the traditional birthstone for March.

In the historical world, Bloodstone (Heliotrope) turned into considered to be the most lovely of the Jaspers, a deep, earthy inexperienced gem emboldened with spots of vibrant purple. Called the Sun Stone, and later Christ?S Stone, its electricity consists of the purity of blood and inherently speaks of life and beginning, power and power, ardour and braveness. As a talisman it's far each mystical and magical, and its virtues are protecting and nurturing.

The most widely recognized legend of this stone comes from the Middle Ages and claims the ?Blood Stone? Become formed at the crucifixion of Jesus Christ, when the blood of his wounds fell onto the dark inexperienced earth and turned to stone. Another version broadcasts the blood of Christ, which flowed from the fatal spear-thrust, fell upon a Green Jasper lying on the foot of the Cross, and from this sprang the Bloodstone kind of Jasper. Today, as then, Bloodstone is appeared as a gem of noble sacrifice and might offer braveness and solace to all who're known as to give of themselves for the best of others. It elicits the best, maximum altruistic character of individuals who put on or deliver it.

The Blood Stone, however, changed into precious long before the time of Christ, recognised in antiquity as Heliotrope, the Sun Stone. From the Greek helios, which means ?Solar,? And trepein, ?To draw,? Heliotrope signified ?Solar-turning,? And legends have been attributed to this stone for the notion that when placed within the rays of the setting sun, or immersed in water, it turned the mirrored image of the sun to blood-red. Its use for recuperation, and its connection to blood and detoxification of the organs, dates again 5 thousand years to Mesopotamia. In many cultures, Heliotrope become dipped in cold water and placed at the frame to aid movement and switch the power of the solar to prevent damage or sickness, forestall the drift of blood, or treatment any wound. Its coagulant impact became famend, and because of this, ancient warriors regularly carried Heliotrope as an amulet of protection and courage, in addition to its realistic applications. Ground, powdered, and blended with honey, it became used to cure tumours, draw out snake venom and staunch haemorrhages. It was said to clean putrefaction of abscesses in a day, and definitely looking at the Blood Stone changed into believed to save you eye diseases.

Bloodstone became treasured not simplest as a talisman of proper fitness and long life, however become reputed to bring its proprietor appreciate, excellent fortune, riches and repute. It covered one from deception, helped triumph over enemies in warfare, and secured victory in court docket and prison matters. It changed into also believed to have magical residences with the capacity to control the climate through keeping off lightning, conjuring storms or summoning rain. Bloodstone conferred the present of prophecy as an ?Audible oracle? That gave off sound as a method of guidance or to warn of hazard, and will direct religious energies to banish negativity and evil.

Occurence and Uses

Bloodstone (Heliotrope) may be categorized as a Jasper or Chalcedony form of Quartz, and is usually a combination of the two. It is commonly described as a dark inexperienced Chalcedony with blood-like spots of Red Jasper or iron oxide inclusions. It happens as huge formations, starting from dark green to greenish-blue or greenish-black, and may be translucent to opaque with a waxy, resinous luster. In addition to the spots and streaks of Red Jasper, a few formations comprise inclusions that are yellow or white, whilst others missing inclusions can be entirely inexperienced. Bloodstone has been known as Blood Jasper and specimens with only yellow inclusions have been called Plasma. In the ancient global it become considered to be a semi-treasured stone or gem, and turned into used significantly as signet seals and in jewelry, as well as being carved into decorative cups, small vases and statuettes.

Bloodstone recuperation homes

Wear or convey Bloodstone as an amulet of protection towards threats or bullying, whether verbal or bodily, and for steerage to withdraw whilst appropriate and the braveness to confront when wished. Sew a small Bloodstone within the coat of a baby or youngster who's being bullied. Carry one for energy while adjusting to new instances.

Wear or bring Bloodstone to boom mental clarity and to aid in decision-making. It affords a intellectual increase when motivation is lacking, and may revitalise the mind and body in case you are exhausted.

Bloodstone stimulates dreaming and heightens instinct. It is marvellous for increasing creativity and cultivating a challenge from the concept stage thru to actualisation. It encourages blessings and prosperity.

Bloodstone is a nurturing mom goddess stone, useful in easing misunderstandings or difficulties with moms or mothering issues. It additionally assists human and animal moms within the bonding technique after a stressful start or one where mom and child were separated for a time.

Working with Bloodstone invigorates the machine, boosting energy stages and increasing patience in bodily pastime. It is useful for all and sundry from athletes to invalids for its regular vibration of purification and well-being. Use as a very good good fortune appeal for sports competitions or matches.

An brilliant stimulator of the immune device, use Bloodstone to thrust back colds, flu, infections and infection. It is likewise a extraordinary aid for revitalising and re-energising the body after illness, injury, or bodily exhaustion.

Bloodstone?S magical houses permit one to draw upon the power of the climate for personal recuperation, inclusive of tapping into the winds to carry alternate or the rain to scrub away sorrow.

Physical properties of Bloodstone

Chemical FormulaSiO2
ColourRed, Green, Brown, Multicolored
Hardness7
Crystal SystemHexagonal
Refractive Index1.54 - 1.55
SG2.63 - 2.65
TransparencyOpaque
Double Refraction.009
LusterVitreous
CleavageIndiscernible
Mineral ClassQuartz (Chalcedony)

Cat's Eye

Cat's Eye describes a gemstone polished into a cabochon that displays a narrow band of concentrated light going across the width of the stone. This effect, known as chatoyancy, or cat's eye effect, is caused by inclusions of fine, slender parallel mineral fibres in the gemstone that reflect light in a single band. Of all the gemstones that exhibit cat's eye, Chrysoberyl Cat's Eye is the best known. Chrysoberyl has the strongest and most distinct cat's eye effect of all gemstones. Though several different gemstones types exhibit a cat's eye effect, only Chrysoberyl's cat's eye enjoys the privilege of having the name "Cat's Eye" without any prefix. Whenever the term "Cat's Eye" is used, it refers to Chrysoberyl cat's eye by default, unless otherwise specified.

Healing properties of Cat's Eye

Cat's Eye acts to stimulate instinct and to beautify cognizance. It is a grounding stone that gives a totally powerful defensive electricity. Cat's Eye dispels undesirable strength from the air of secrecy. It amplifies precise success and fortune. Chrysoberyl Cat's Eye transforms bad thoughts into high quality energy. Cat's Eye brings happiness and serenity, together with optimism, generosity and self assurance. It can beautify creativity and kindness. Traditionally, Cat's Eye is assumed to guard the wearer from evil spirits.

Cat's Eye treats eye issues and improves night time vision. It relieves complications, facial and sciatic pain. Cat's Eye aids the nervous device and related pains. It may be used to heal the kidneys, pancreas, liver, lymph nodes, spleen and troubles associated with leukemia.

Properties of Cat's Eye

Chemical FormulaBeAl2O4
ColourBlue, Red, Green, Yellow, Orange, Brown, Pink, Purple, Gray, Multicoloured
Hardness8.5
Crystal SystemOrthorhombic
Refractive Index1.744 - 1.755
SG3.5 - 3.8
TransparencyTranslucent
Double Refraction.009
LusterVitreous
Cleavage1,1 ; 3,2
Mineral Class Chrysoberyl

21 May 2020

Carnelian

A glassy, translucent stone, Carnelian is an orange-coloured variety of Chalcedony , a mineral of the Quartz family. Its colour varies from pale pinkish-orange to a deep rusty brown, though it is most known for its brilliant orange and red-orange crystals. Its name comes from a Latin word meaning "flesh."Carnelian (also spelled cornelian) is a brownish-red mineral which is commonly used as a semi-precious gemstone. Similar to carnelian is sard, which is generally harder and darker (the difference is not rigidly defined, and the two names are often used interchangeably). Both carnelian and sard are varieties of the silica mineral chalcedony coloured by impurities of iron oxide. The colour can vary greatly, ranging from pale orange to an intense almost-black coloration. It is most common in Brazil, India, Siberia and Germany.

The bow drill was used to drill holes into carnelian in Mehrgarh between 4th-5th millennium BC.Carnelian was recovered from Bronze Age Minoan layers at Knossos on Crete in a form that demonstrated its use in decorative arts; this use dates to approximately 1800 BC. Carnelian was used widely during Roman times to make engraved gems for signet or seal rings for imprinting a seal with wax on correspondence or other important documents. Hot wax does not stick to carnelian. Sard was used for Assyrian cylinder seals, Egyptian and Phoenician scarabs, and early Greek and Etruscan gems. The Hebrew odem (translated sardius), the first stone in the High Priest's breastplate, was a red stone, probably sard but perhaps red jasper.

Although now the more common term, "carnelian" is a 16th-century corruption of the 14th-century word "cornelian" (and its associated orthographies corneline and cornalyn). Cornelian, cognate with similar words in several Romance languages, comes from the Mediaeval Latin corneolus, itself derived from the Latin word cornum, the cornel cherry, whose translucent red fruits resemble the stone. The Oxford English Dictionary calls "carnelian" a perversion of "cornelian", by subsequent analogy with the Latin word caro, carnis, flesh. According to Pliny the Elder, sard derives its name from the city of Sardis in Lydia, but it more likely comes from the Persian word سرد sered, meaning yellowish red.

Orange stones, especially the carnelians, are excellent aids for training, coordination of physical exercise programs, and for balancing body energy levels. Carnelians boost a listless attitude and can stimulate the appetite.

Used as a professional support crystal, Carnelian aids architects, builders and construction workers in their creation of master buildings, stimulates power and stamina in athletes and military personnel, establishes form and organisation in journalists, and stimulates motivation in salespersons.

Carnelian is said to attract prosperity, new resources and good luck. It is a talisman for success in any money-making venture. In the workplace, it is a crystal of ambition, drive and determination, and wards off undue pressures of co-workers or impersonal corporations with unrealistic expectations.

Carnelian clarifies the voice. It is the Singer's Stone. It also promotes confidence for performances on stage or in live media.

Carnelian is traditionally known to guard against falling masonry and accidents with tools. Today it guards the home from theft, fire, storm or accident.

Carnelian lends the courage needed to help overcome difficulties and defend a cause. It promotes idealism, a sense of community and pragmatism.

Orange and red Carnelian are important crystals to use for love, and for the consummation of love. Orange crystals, in particular, are fertility and potency symbols and are linked with conceiving a child. Carnelian of either color may help in rekindling passions that might have faded in an otherwise loving relationship

Chemical FormulaSiO2
ColourRed, Orange
Hardness7
Crystal SystemHexagonal
Refractive Index1.54 - 1.55
SG2.63 - 2.65
TransparencyTransparent to nearly opaque
Double Refraction.009
LusterVitreous
CleavageNone
Mineral ClassQuartz (Chalcedony)

chalcedony

Chalcedony is a cryptocrystalline form of silica, composed of very fine intergrowths of quartz and moganite. These are both silica minerals, but they differ in that quartz has a trigonal crystal structure, while moganite is monoclinic. Chalcedony's standard chemical structure (based on the chemical structure of quartz) is SiO2 (silicon dioxide).

Chalcedony has a waxy luster, and can be semitransparent or translucent. It can assume a huge variety of colors, however the ones maximum generally seen are white to gray, grayish-blue or a shade of brown ranging from pale to almost black. The color of chalcedony bought commercially is frequently enhanced by means of dyeing or heating.

The name chalcedony comes from the Latin chalcedonius (alternatively spelled calchedonius). The name appears in Pliny the Elder's Naturalis Historia as a term for a translucid kind of Jaspis. The name is probably derived from the town Chalcedon in Asia Minor.. It is a hapax legomenon (the term for a word found nowhere else) so it is hard to tell whether the precious gem mentioned in the Bible is the same mineral known by this name today.

History

Fine examples of first century objects made from chalcedony, possibly Kushan, were found in recent years at Tillya-tepe in north-western Afghanistan. Hot wax would not stick to it so it was often used to make seal impressions. The term chalcedony is derived from the name of the ancient Greek town Chalkedon in Asia Minor, in modern English usually spelled Chalcedon, today the Kadıköy district of Istanbul.

In the 19th century Idar-Oberstein, Germany became the world's largest chalcedony processing centre, in particular agates. Most of these agates were from Latin America, in particular Brazil. Originally the agate carving industry around Idar and Oberstein was driven by local deposits that were mined in the 15th century. Several factors contributed to the re-emergence of Idar-Oberstein as agate centre of the world: ships brought agate nodules back as ballast, thus providing extremely cheap transport. Also, cheap labour and a superior knowledge of chemistry allowing them to dye the agates in any colour with processes that were kept secret helped. Each mill in Idar Oberstein had four or five grindstones. These were of red sandstone, obtained from Zweibrücken; and two men ordinarily worked together at the same stone.

Geochemistry

Structure

Chalcedony was once thought to be a fibrous variety of cryptocrystalline quartz. More recently however, it has been shown to also contain a monoclinic polymorph of quartz, known as moganite. The fraction, by mass, of moganite within a typical chalcedony sample may vary from less than 5% to over 20%. The existence of moganite was once regarded as dubious, but it is now officially recognised by the International Mineralogical Association.

Solubility

Chalcedony is more soluble than quartz under low-temperature conditions, regardless of the two minerals being chemically equal. This is concept to be due to the fact chalcedony is extraordinarily finely grained (cryptocrystalline), and so has a completely excessive surface place to quantity ratio. It has additionally been suggested that the higher solubility is because of the moganite thing.

Solubility of quartz and chalcedony in pure water

This table gives equilibrium concentrations of total dissolved silicon as calculated by using PHREEQC (PH Redox Equilibrium (in C language, USGS)) the usage of the llnl.Dat database

Blue Chalcedony is an extraordinary crystal for public speakers and those who talk for a living. Lawyers and political audio system may advantage from touching this stone to the end in their tongue at the same time as taking note of their opponents to enhance their counter arguments.

Actors may rub it in opposition to their lips and throat, at the same time as singers can also drink a pitcher of water in which Chalcedony has soaked for an hour before going on stage. Wearing this crystal around the neck allows triumph over level fright and the worry of public speakme.

As a stone of peace and peace-making, Blue Chalcedony encourages stillness and calm in the domestic for the ones at odds with each other, vying for their region in the pecking order. It is likewise useful for each day journeys to paintings, or traumatic journeys concerning youngsters.

Chemical FormulaSiO2
ColourWhite, Blue, Red, Green, Yellow, Orange, Brown, Pink, Purple, Gray, Black, Banded, Multicoloured
Hardness6.5 - 7
Crystal SystemHexagonal
Refractive Index1.54 - 1.55
SG2.63 - 2.65
TransparencyTranslucent to opaque
Double Refraction.009
LusterVitreous to waxy
CleavageNone
Mineral ClassQuartz (Chalcedony)

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